The most abundant area of Lithuanian folk art is sculpture. There are two kinds of sculpture: relief and in the round (bas-relief and high relief). Monumental sculpture has spread all over Lithuania. However, this kind of sculpture was less widespread in Užnemunė. In Aukštaitija ethnical region sculpture was more stylized than in Žemaitija region, moreover it distinguished for elongated proportions. Themes and subjects of a traditional sculpture were determined by the country folk philosophy and viewpoint that were prevailing in Lithuania then. Religious themes were predominant features of sculptures. Sculptures depicted the Pensive Christ, the Pieta and Biblical scenes of saints.  Furthermore, sculptures portrayed a number of personages of traditional mythological legends and peasants at work likewise gods and goddesses —the guardians of fields and property — Agota, Antanas, Florijonas, Izidorius, Jonas and others. Folk sculptors, who portrayed saints, withdrew from Christian iconography; they conveyed religious scenes through the eyes of peasants and portrayed typical features of the local peasants as well as their social status, their way of life and the environment. The saints that were depicted in the sculptures of folk artists were  usually wearing peasants’ clothes and shoes – the outdoor garments were made of rough cloth (skirts, shawls and clogs).Sculptures were carved from wood and only occasionally they were hewn from stone.


In the former times, stone carving was widely spread in Lithuania, whereas stone was a particularly valued material. The stones with different carved images, such as the sun, the moon, the stars, etc. were related to the religion of the ancient Lithuanians and the worship of the heavenly bodies.; e.g. the stone sculpture depicting the suns was erected on the mound of the village of Dapšiai (Mažeikiai district.), the stone depicting a horseshoe — near the village of Varnupiai (Marijampolė district.) and depicting snakes — near Raguva. Some stones had crypto crypts that were carved on their surface – the so-called cryptographic stones (one of them was erected in the village of Staniava, Prienai district).


Sculptures in the round, the so-called “‘small gods”, (generally, the term was used by the country folk) were erected on the framework of roof poles, on Russian Orthodox crosses and chapels. This phenomenon has partly determined the form of these sculptures. Generally, sculptures portrayed the frontal view – merely the forepart of the sculpture was carved meticulously, whereas the back part of the sculpture had a few decorations or no decorations at all. Sculptures were small (15–40 cm high, occasionally – to 1 m). Some of them were stylized, while others — rather realistic. Faces on most of sculptures were occasionally personalized. An element of plastic rhythm of sculptures was restrained and moderate. Gebneralized laconic forms of sculptures were supplied with monumental and decorative elements. Sculptures expressed sincerity and were lyrical in mood. Emotionality was enhanced by vivid and gaudy colours (red, blue, green and others).


There are groups of composite sculptures (of Jurgis, Izidorius, the Pieta and others) that were carved out of a single piece of wood or based on a single plot and made of separate elements.


Bas-relief and high relief sculptures were less widespread in the former times. Those sculptures likewise sculptures in the round, were set on memorial monuments and just occasionally were used in dwelling houses as paintings. The plots of those sculptures were based on religious motives; the sculptures were painted, whereas their background was decorated with the landscape scenes. The sun, clouds and the moon were painted in colours.


A traditional sculpture involved wooden masks that were used during Pancake Day, wedding parties and other ritual celebrations. Masks conveyed vices of people, and similarly depicted funny personages (greedy merchants and jokers) and fantasy creatures (demons and witches). Mask design techniques and plastic elements were extremely diverse. Expressivity and ornamentation of masks were achieved through such decorative elements as the sheep’s fur and horsehair that were attached to the wooden base of masks.


Folk sculptors, the so-called “persons creating the gods”, were usually gifted uneducated landless peasants, carpenters, blacksmiths, joiners and musicians. A considerable part of these sculptors were active participants in political and cultural life.  During the rebellion of 1863 they were working as book smugglers, organizers of the village theatres and involved in other activities.


In the 18th-19th centuries the most prominent sculptors were as follows: K. Brazys, P. Buzas, A. Deveikis, T. Dulska, S. Gailevičius, J. Gedminis, K. Mockus, A. Norvaiša, J. Orvydas, J. Paulauskas, P. Perminas, A. Potockis, K. Puišis, J. Raibužis, A. Raudonis, J. Remeika, J. Rumša, A. Skrinskas, J. Stankus, P. Stirbukas, J. Tilindis, J. Valys, K. Zokas and others.


Creative works of some folk sculptors were related to a number of art styles (mainly, the Baroque style) that were predominant throughout art history.